Utopia: Living in a Nowhere Land
In those days, the various myths tell us, there was an instinctive harmony between humanity and nature.
Utopia and Its Discontents
People's needs were few and their desires limited. Both were easily satisfied by the abundance provided by nature. Accordingly, there were no motives whatsoever for war or oppression. Nor was there any need for hard and painful work. Humans were simple and pious and felt themselves close to their God or gods.
According to one anthropological theory, hunter-gatherers were the original affluent society.
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These mythical or religious archetypes are inscribed in many cultures and resurge with special vitality when people are in difficult and critical times. However, in utopias, the projection of the myth does not take place towards the remote past but either towards the future or towards distant and fictional places, imagining that at some time in the future, at some point in space, or beyond death, there must exist the possibility of living happily.
Utopia Nowhere by Solange Hertz
These myths of the earliest stage of humankind have been referred to by various cultures, societies and religions:. The Greek poet Hesiod , around the 8th century BC, in his compilation of the mythological tradition the poem Works and Days , explained that, prior to the present era , there were four other progressively more perfect ones, the oldest of which was the Golden Age. Plutarch , the Greek historian and biographer of the 1st century, dealt with the blissful and mythic past of the humanity. From Sir Philip Sidney 's prose romance The Old Arcadia , originally a region in the Peloponnesus , Arcadia became a synonym for any rural area that serves as a pastoral setting, a locus amoenus "delightful place".
Out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And the Lord God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; [ According to the exegesis that the biblical theologian Herbert Haag proposes in the book Is original sin in Scripture? On the other hand, while supporting a continuity in the Bible about the absence of preternatural gifts Latin : dona praeternaturalia  with regard to the ophitic event , Haag never makes any reference to the discontinuity of the loss of access to the tree of life.
The Land of Cockaigne also Cockaygne, Cokaygne , was an imaginary land of idleness and luxury, famous in medieval stories and the subject of several poems, one of which, an early translation of a 13th-century French work, is given in George Ellis' Specimens of Early English Poets. In this, "the houses were made of barley sugar and cakes, the streets were paved with pastry and the shops supplied goods for nothing. Datong is a traditional Chinese Utopia. Schlaraffenland is an analogous German tradition.
All these myths also express some hope that the idyllic state of affairs they describe is not irretrievably and irrevocably lost to mankind, that it can be regained in some way or other. Christopher Columbus followed directly in this tradition in his belief that he had found the Garden of Eden when, towards the end of the 15th century, he first encountered the New World and its indigenous inhabitants.
In the 21st century, discussions around utopia for some authors include post-scarcity economics , late capitalism , and universal basic income ; for example, the "human capitalism" utopia envisioned in Utopia for Realists includes a universal basic income and a hour workweek, along with open borders. Scandinavian nations, which as of ranked at the top of the World Happiness Report , are sometimes cited as modern utopias, although author Michael Booth has called that a myth.
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Community or society possessing highly desirable or perfect qualities. For original book by Sir Thomas More, see Utopia book. For other uses, see Utopia disambiguation. For a similar word, see Utopians disambiguation.
Further information: Social ecology. See also: Palingenesis and Apocatastasis. Main page: Utopian fiction. See also: Utopia disambiguation and Neverland disambiguation. Utopianism: A very short introduction. The Necessity of Utopian Thinking: A cross-national perspective.
Thinking Utopia: Steps into other worlds Report. New York: Berghahn Books. Utopian Reality: Reconstructing culture in revolutionary Russia and beyond.
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Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. Bratislava: RTVS. Retrieved 14 May The Utopian Socialism Movement. Financial Times. Retrieved 27 August University Press of Kansas. Ecotopia A vision of our future green utopia. New York: Arcade Publishers. Uitgeverij Jan van Arkel.
Retrieved The Guardian. The Irish Catholic. Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics. Ada Township, Michigan : Baker Books. This goodness theme is advanced most definitively through the promise of a renewal of all creation, a hope present in OT prophetic literature Isa. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. A docudrama about the death of the American dream.
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